a)
Source 1: Dr. Helmut Glück, Aerodynamik
der Schienenfahrzeuge (Aerodynamics of Rail Vehicles), Cologne 1985 page
61; formula of Deutsche Versuchsanstalt for Luft and Raumfahrt:
cw=cwFront+cwRear+0.02(AkAm)/S+nSA*cwSA+(cwa/cwa=max.)(cwR+cwTr+cwFT+cwWheel)
with:
cwR=O/S*(8.1+1.6log LZ)2.5 and
cwa/cwa=max.=1.1
Ak, Am: Crosssection of head resp. middle
cars (m²)
S: normative area 10 m²
SA: pantographs
O: surface of the train
Tr: gap between cars
LZ:train length
FT: windows, doors
n: number
a: distance vehicle bottom  ground (track
bed)
Term  Value  Unit  Comment 
cwFront 
0.10

yields cw = 0.28 for a single cabin  
cwRear 
0.16


Cross section Ak=Am (m2) 
5.8

m²  
train length Lz=171m 
38

cars  at 4.6 m length per cabin 
cwR 
0.34

according to formula  
cwTr 
0.00346

*  
cwFT 
0.05

*  
cw,wheel 
0.00

constant cross section  
cwtotal 
0.69


speed 
50

m/s  
power 
325

kW  
efficiency 
0.32

primary energy>air gap  
comparison value (air res) 
1.67

l/100km/car  primary petrol 
comparison value (air res) 
1.37

l/100km/car  diesel oil at gas station** 
*Values for cw values for gaps between cars, windows and doors are estimated considering DB measurements of air resistance from 1975: A 26.4 m long modern express passenger car bears as compared to a C4 express passenger car a 23% lower cwvalue per meter length.
**8 % losses for refinement, infrastructure and transport, diesel oil has 11% higher energy content per litre. Calculations according to E. Jänsch, eb 93 (1995) 1/2, 25
b)
Source 2: R. Fürst, Proceedings MAGLEV'95,
S. 117 Fig. 6, similarity calculations for 10sections TR 07:
Term  Value  Unit  Comment 
TR 07 10S at 2% gradient 
16.10

kW/to  speed 180 km/h 
TR 07 2S at 2% gradient 
18.30

kW/to  speed 180 km/h 
TR 07 10S at 0% gradient 
6.29

kW/to  speed 180 km/h 
TR 07 2S at 0% gradient 
8.47

kW/to  speed 180 km/h 
for air resistance 
3.73

kW/to  *** 
for nonair resistance 
4.74

kW/to  specific power for nonair resistance 
weight TR 07 2S 
90

t  equals 45t per section 
power at 0% gradient 
762

kW  
of which for air resistance 
335

kW  
for nonair resistance 
427

kW  for TR 07 2sections 
***see reference p. 421: TR 06 has 44% air resistance at 180 km/h, assume: TR 07 equally.
Source 3: Meeting of VDI: The Future of
track guided traffic, Hamburg, 1998, Calculation of air resistance of a
10sectionsTR 08.
Term  Value  Unit  Comment 
weight TR 07 10S 
450

t  equals 45t per section 
power at 0% gradient 
2831

kW  according to source (see above) 
for nonair resistance 
2134

kW  5 times TR 07 2S, proportional to number of sections 
for air resistance TR 07 
696

kW  
for air resistance TR 08 
592

kW  15 % improved cwvalue over TR 07 according to source 
AUTOSHUTTLE
Air Resistance by Aerodynamic Similarity Calculation with TR 08:
Term  Value  Unit  Comment 
Car Convoy  
Crosssection=A 
5.8

m²  TR 07: 11m² crosssection 
length 
171

m  similar body to TR 07 10S 
cars 
38

at 4.6 m per car  
speed 
180

km/h  
lump additional factor 
1.05

for steeper front and more gaps  
power per car 
8.62

kW  in the air gap 
total efficiency 
0.32


compar. value (air resis only) 
1.68

l/100km/car  primary petrol 
compar. value (air resis only) 
1.38

l/100km/car  diesel at gas station 
Lorry Convoy  
cross section = A 
17.58

m²  TR 07: 11m² crosssection 
length 
298

m  similar body to TR 07 10S 
number of 40 tolorries 
15

at 20 m length per vehicle  
speed 
180

km/h  
power/lorry 
67

kW  in the air gap 
total efficiency 
0.32

primary energy>air gap  
comp. value (air resis only) 
13.01

l/100km/40to  primary petrol 
comp. value (air resis only) 
10.65

l/100km/40to  diesel at gas station 
The average value for both calculation
methods a) and b) yields for a car convoy 1.37 l Diesel/100km/car
and for a lorry convoy 10.61 l Diesel/100km/40to at a gas station
each.